My succulent is sun burnt – what should I do?

My succulent is sun burnt – what should I do?

Surprisingly, it does not take much for a succulent to get sun burnt!  There are a few reasons why and how your succulent could/would get sun burnt and there are a few things you can do if it does.

It was not that hot and my succulent still got sun burnt!
If you move a succulent into a sunny position from its usual shadier spot there is a very high chance that the leaves will get sun burnt.  Of course there are variables to consider.  Summer sun is a lot stronger than winter sun, so should you move your succulent to a sunnier position in the winter chances are they will enjoy the sun and be fine but should you move your succulent to a sunnier position in late spring or summer the end result could be sun burn.  It really depends on the intensity of the sun.

Aeonium Pinwheel succulent with sun burnt leaves

Aeonium Pinwheel – sun burnt leaves.

My brand new succulent got sun burnt as soon as I put it in the sun!
Keep in mind that succulents grown in nurseries are grown under shade cloth.  This is how all succulents are propagated and grown.  Even a baby succulent offshoot/pup grows in the shade of the parent plant until it is old/strong enough to survive the strong rays of the sun.  So if you purchase a new succulent and put the plant in the sun there is 90% chance that the leaves will get sun burnt.  Every succulent that I buy I put straight into the sun knowing this will happen, but I know that in the end the succulent will be stronger and used to growing in the sun (assuming it a succulent species that likes sun).  It can actually take a few months for the succulent to acclimatise and during this time can look a bit worse for wear but I believe it is worth it.

sun burnt succulent leaves sun burnt echeveria imbricata Sedum succulent with sunburn

Above are a few of my succulents that were sun burnt this summer.

If you do not want your succulent to get sun burnt but ultimately would like your succulent to grow in a full sun position you need to start the plant off in a semi-shaded position and gradually allow the plant to receive more sun (time) as it matures.

My succulent suddenly has sun burnt leaves and I did not move it into the sun?!?!
If you are growing your succulent in a half shade/half sun position and one day (during summer) you find the leaves have sun burn this would probably because it was a very hot day (ie 40c/104F) and the intensity of the sun was stronger than the succulent was used to,  The heat of the sun on these hot summer days will easily burn your succulent’s leaves.

Echevveria with sun burnt leaves

What can I do about my sun burnt succulent?

Leave the burnt leaves on the plant.
There are a few things that you can do about your sun burnt leaves. Sun burnt leaves do not look at all attractive and the first thing you will want to do is to get rid of them.  However, if you are experiencing a heatwave or know there is more hot weather on the way and you are unable to move your succulent to a shadier position (as it may be planted in the ground!) then it is best to leave the sun burnt leaves on the plant.  They will protect/shade the lower leaves on the plant below that did not get sun burnt.

Cut the burnt leaves off the plant.
Yes you can carefully snip out the sun burnt leaves to make the succulent look nice again, this will not be detrimental to the plant.  Usually the leaves that get sun burnt are the outer leaves so they should be fairly easy to access.

If you leave your sun burnt leaves on the plant they will eventually complete their natural cycle and go brown, dry up and drop off the plant in due course.

Will my sun burnt succulent die?
No it will not!  Usually only a few leaves will burn.  The new leaves forming in the centre of the succulent actually look amazingly healthy in comparison.  Conversely, you would expect the new (inner) leaves to be burnt and the older leaves (to the outer edge of the plant) to survive.  This is not the case, the succulent is preparing its new growth for the hotter more intense sun.  The older leaves have not been prepared for these conditions and have not been grown to cope with the sun’s intensity – this is why they burn.

What can I do to prevent sun burn?
You can protect your succulents from sun burn by moving them into the shade when it is a hot day out of the intense heat from the sun.  So either move your pots into the shade for the duration of the heatwave or if they are planted in the garden cover them with some shade cloth.  This will deflect some of the intensity of the sun.


Why have the stems on my succulents shrivelled?

Why have the stems on my succulents shrivelled?

The stems of a few of my succulents started looking dry and then they started to look shrivelled and brown.  I was quite concerned.  How would the succulent live if it could not get water from its roots?  I did notice that there were some aerial roots above the shrivelled stem which would be the succulents way of trying to survive the lack of water it was receiving from its original roots in the soil.

shrivelled stem on succulent

Why did the stems shrivel?
This is ‘not‘ root rot or in this case ‘ stem rot’.  Root rot on a succulent is black! and there is no sign of dried out stems when a succulent has root rot.  This is due to the succulent having too much heat and not enough water for it to cope. Normally it would be the amount of heat – ie high temperatures.  Succulents like sun with lots of air flow but some do not cope with high temperatures. ie 38-40C/100-104F. It may cope with a few days of high temperatures with the right amount of water but ongoing high temperatures with no water and the succulent’s survival tactics will kick in. 

Will my succulent survive?
As in the case below, the stems have all shrivelled and the separated stems have put out new aerial roots in attempt to survive the heat.  A sure sign it is willing to survive!

Graptoveria growing in ground

A healthy succulent when first planted!

Graptoveria dying

Suffering from over heating and lack of water!

What can I do to save my succulent?
Firstly, do not panic!  The reason we all love succulents is because they are amazing survivors. Cut the stems above the shrivelled part and replant into a new pot or a different spot in the garden. Move the pot/plant  to a position with a bit more shade.  Even if the stems do not have any tiny white aerial roots the plant will still grow some new roots in the soil and live on.  Wait about 1 week before you water the new cuttings.

Some succulents do require a little more water than others.  However, moving the succulent to a shadier position will most likely cure the problem.  If you move the plant to a shadier position AND increase the water then you may then over water which will then cause root rot. So try the shadier position without adjusting the water first.  If the stems shrivel again (in due course) then you should water more regularly.  Some succulents do require more regular watering than others.

So why have the stems of your succulents shrivelled? Basically; to let you know that they are not happy and to do something about it!



How do I treat pests on succulents & cacti?

How do I treat pests on succulents & cacti?

An inevitable part of every gardener’s life is dealing with pests. Those of us enamoured with succulents are more fortunate than most – we have fewer bugs trying to munch our plants. Still, audacious insects attempt it occasionally, so you should be prepared to defend yourself and your plants.


The first (and most important) step to treating any pest is to quarantine affected plants. Infestations will usually take several days to a week to treat, and you need to ensure that the pest isn’t able to spread to unaffected plants.

A successful quarantine relies on you catching the pest early. I probably don’t need to tell you to do regular inspections because you’re already looking at your plants every day. If you’re not, for some strange reason, make an effort to look carefully at every plant in your collection at least once a week. Check under leaves and in nooks and crannies. Pests like dark, damp places.

If you find something suspect, quarantine immediately. Take the plant into another room, if possible, or at least 2 meters away from the others. Then, begin treatment.


mealy bugs

Photo from

Perhaps the most common succulent pest and, fortunately, one of the easiest to treat. They are easy to identify too: specks of white cottony material about 1-2 mm in length. They tend to group in crevices; often where the leaf meets the stem.

You can treat these by washing them off with a particularly powerful stream of water. Some succulents drop leaves at the slightest touch, however, so this approach won’t work for them.

Instead, try spraying a 70% isopropyl alcohol solution on the affected areas. It won’t harm your plant. A neem oil solution is also very effective in treating mealybugs.

There is a much more detailed explanation of mealybugs, their prevention and their treatment, over at Sublime Succulents if you want to check it out!



Photo courtesy of Flickr

While most pests are soft-bodied insects like mealybugs or aphids, scale is a hard-bodied bug. What this means for you is that treatment is more difficult.

They usually appear as brown to black colored bumps that are oval in shape. Scale hugs the plant very tightly, and won’t be removed by simple brushing or water. You can try the alcohol solution detailed above, but chances are it will take several treatments to get some results.

While I generally try to avoid using insecticides because of the collateral damage it can cause to beneficial insects, a scale infestation means you have to get serious. Try an insecticidal soap or neem oil solution. Don’t apply them during the day, or the oils that linger on your plant could cause it to burn.

Fungus Gnats

Picture by Reddit user /u/bornslippy_nuxx

Also called sciarid flies, these pests look (and act) a lot like fruit flies. Also like fruit flies, they’re not very harmful to your plants – they’re just annoying.

These gnats pop up when your soil stays wet for too long. They lay eggs in the dirt, then the larva munches on dead and decaying matter. Those baby fungus gnat require moisture to survive, so they’ll go away if you adjust watering frequency accordingly.


I’ve got rid of them several times by simply inflicting a drought – I delay watering until I don’t see the flies anymore. The adults only live for 10 days or so, and the eggs and larvae wither if they’re not moist. A more immediate solution is to mix some hydrogen peroxide into your water the next time – that’ll get them too.

To prevent them from appearing at all, make sure you only water when the soil is totally dry – then wait another day or two. Top-dressing like a layer of gravel on top of your soil can also help dissuade the flies from making your plant their home.

Remember, Prevention is the Best Treatment

Most of these pests can be avoided by simply having good garden hygiene. Don’t let your plants or their soil stay wet for too long. Make sure there is plenty of airflow of dry air. Prune occasionally, and remove dead plant matter from pots.

A pest invasion isn’t a reason for panic. By catching it early you can mitigate the damage done. Many infestations will require treatment to be repeated every few days until the pest goes away.

Even if a plant is severely affected – it’s ok! These are succulents we’re talking about. Just propagate it.

About the Author

Patrick Grubbs runs the website Sublime Succulents – a site dedicated to saving succy lives through education. When he’s not writing tutorials about pest control, he’s figuring out how to fit more plants on his windowsills.

Which locations do succulents thrive?

Which locations do succulents thrive?

The answer to the question – which locations do succulents thrive in – is :  any and all locations!  There are so many succulents that there will always be a species that will thrive in a location in your garden.

If you are a succulent novice or a well seasoned succulent gardener there will always be a new succulent that you acquire that you will be uncertain about which location to put it in.  Does it cope with full sun, is it a shade lover?

If the succulent you buy comes with an ID tag (that’s if you are very lucky) its possible it ‘might’ give you a ‘vague’ idea of the sort of growing conditions the succulent would thrive in.  General suggestions like ‘full sun’ or partial shade’, ‘fertilise in spring’.  They are generalised by the nursery for all plants that they grow.  For further explanation on some of these see: (How much sun do succulents need? Morning or Afternoon? Full or Part? )

This ID tag contradicts itself – may tolerate dryness but the soil must not dry out! – not helpful!

But how will you know if your succulent is just surviving or if it is thriving?

Signs that your succulent is just surviving.
There are signs that will tell you that your succulent is not doing well.  Such as, stretching (etoliation) from not enough sun/light, wilting leaves from over watering, puckered leaves from under watering and burnt leaves from too much sun. It is surviving but not as well as it could.  These signs do not mean that it is dying but it could be doing a lot better in a different location.

Stretching succulents: If your succulent is not receiving enough sun/light and is stretching then it needs to be moved straight away into a position that gives it more light.  Stretching (also known as etoliation) is not reversible, the only remedy is to prune the plant back so that it can start again in its new sunnier position where it wont stretch and will grow compact and healthy.

This is an example of an etioliated/stretched succulent. Tall and lanky rather than short and compact.

Burnt leaves: If your succulent has burnt leaves it may be because it has been previously grown in a part sun/part shade situation at the nursery.  The good news is that having burnt leaves will not kill a succulent, once the burnt leaves become the oldest leaves they will shrivel and die.  The new leaves that grow from the centre will be strong and healthy and will have acclimatised to full sun and will not get sun burnt. Succulents will acclimatise to new locations in 2-3 months

Note:  The only exception to this rule is if there is an abnormally hot day/week (around 40C/104F) the chances are that even a succulent growing in full sun can still get sun burnt leaves.

Sedum succulent with sunburnThese leave are suburnt.

Wilting/Pale leaves: Over watering can cause the leaves to look pale or yellow and they will wilt.  If you notice this on a few leaves then do not water the succulent until you see signs of recovery.  This could be weeks or even a month!  It may already be too late and the plant will die but you may catch it in time.   See post: How often should I water succulents? Do succulents need water?

overwatered succulent

Puckered Leaves: It does not happen very often but sometimes you can underwater your succulent and it will have puckered leaves.  Give the plant a drenching of water and leave it to dry out.  Do not make the mistake of then giving it too much water.

Underwatered succulent leaves

Puckered leaves can be a sign of an under watered succulent

Signs that your succulent is thriving
It can take some time to know if your succulent is thriving.  It is not something you can know within a week of receiving the plant. The signs that it is thriving are:
– not showing any of the above mentioned conditions
– new growth – especially in the succulent’s growing season
– flowers – a succulent will only flower in the right growing conditions
– pups/babies -succulents will only produce offspring if it has the right growing conditions to do so
– getting to its maximum species size

Succulents can thrive and look different!
A succulent will always adapt to its growing conditions.  See example below. Both of these succulents are the same genus/species and are producing babies/pups ie thriving.  Sempervivums (House Leeks) are grown on roof tops in Europe so would receive full sun at some times of the year and no sun at others and would therefore look different during different seasons.

Sempervivum grown in part shade Sempervivum grown in full sun

These Sempervivum are exactly the same species.  The Sempervivum on the left are growing in partial shade.  The Sempervivum on the right have 8 hours of full sun.  

Whether your succulent is grown in the ground or in a pot.  If it is not doing well do not be scared to dig it up and move it or put the pot somewhere else.  The majority of succulents are very hardy and if it is not doing well in one position there is no harm in moving it to another location. 

I have found that planting a succulent in the garden, that is not doing so well in a pot, makes the world of difference.  As long as the soil conditions and drainage are correct the roots of the plant will fair better in the ground, as the conditions are not so variable, compared with a pot which can heat up and dry out quicker and constrict the roots.

succulent garden australia

The difference between a succulent ‘surviving’ and a succulent ‘thriving’ is location, location, location!

Related Posts
Which succulents grow in full shade?
Do Succulents really prefer Sun?


How often should I water succulents?  Do succulents need water?

How often should I water succulents? Do succulents need water?

A common idea that people have about succulents is that they do not ‘require/need’ water.  This is a myth. All plants need water including succulents.  Yes they can survive long periods of ‘drought’, ie no water, but they ‘do‘ need water to live. How often and how much is the question. As succulents store water in their leaves, stems, or roots they can survive when there is a drought, therefore it is better for a succulent to be too dry than over watered. Do not use a spray bottle, the roots of the succulent need water.

Generally, you should water more often in the summer when the plant is actively growing than in the winter when the plant goes into semi-dormancy. Watering also depends on quite a few variables with regard to the succulents growing conditions: 

Is the plant grown in a pot or the ground
Pot size
Inside the house or outside
Type of soil
Light Conditions – ie how much and how strong is the sun
Succulent genus/species
Maturity of the plant
Time of Year – Spring/Summer/Autumn Winter

Lets assume that the soil is free draining, the pot has drainage holes and the succulent has the right amount of sun/shade exposure.

Indoor Succulents
How much?
Give a good soaking—water should run out drainage holes at the bottom of the pot
Be sure to empty the water that runs into the saucer
How often?
Let the soil dry out completely before you next water.  It does not mean it needs water as soon as the soil it dries out, just to let the soil dry before you do water again.
Larger pots can hold more moisture, small shallow pots will dry out a lot quicker and may require
to be watered more frequently

Outdoor in Pots
Outdoor pots generally require more regular watering than indoor pots due to warmer conditions.
How much?
Give a good soaking—water should run out drainage holes at the bottom of the pot
Be sure to empty the water that runs into the saucer
How often?
Let the soil dry out completely before you next water. It does not mean it needs water as soon as the soil it dries out, just to let the soil dry before you do water again.
Larger pots can hold more moisture, small shallow pots will dry out a lot quicker and may require
to be watered more frequently

Succulent in large pot

Large pots hold more moisture so do not dry out so quickly

succulent in small pot

Small pots will dry out a lot quicker than a large pot as it holds less moisture.

Pots will dry out a lot quicker in spring/summer compared to autumn/winter.  So the need for watering will be required more often in the warmer months.
Winter rains can keep the pots moist continuously, but as they are in pots consider moving them to a sunny position under the eaves of the house to control the amount of water they receive.  This can also protect them from frost.  Don’t forget to water them while they are under the eaves though!

Succulents in the Ground
Succulents growing in the ground have different watering requirements to those that are grown in pots.  The soil temperature stays cooler and doesn’t dry out as quickly. The succulents will also establish a stronger root system.

succulent garden australia succulent growing in wall succulents in wall

The succulents above are growing in my garden.  I very rarely water them myself, they survive on annual rainfall.

How Much?
Consideration regarding natural rainfall is required when deciding how much to water succulents in the ground. As with succulents in pots give the succulents a good soaking, ensuring the water does not pool around the base/roots of the plant.
How Often?
In the Winter you should not have to water succulents growing in the ground at all. As long as you ensure they are grown in good draining soil – ie not clay soils.  Most succulents can cope with a lot of rain.  Planting succulents on banks, in walls or building a mound of soil and planting the succulent on the top of the mound will ensure their roots do not sit in water and they will then cope with rain.
In Spring or Summer if they receive rain once every 7-10 days you still should not need to water them at all.  If there is no rain once per fortnight should suffice, or even once per month. 

There is no simple answer to how often to water succulents.  Sometimes it is more about when to recognise that they need to be watered or when they have had too much water.

Signs of an Over-watered Succulent
An over watered succulent has leaves that are soft and squishy, they will drop off easily from the plant  and can be pale green or sometimes yellow or orange in colour.
Remedy: Do not water for ‘at least’ two weeks to give the plant time to dry out properly.  If the leaves drop off take them out of the pot/away from the plant.  Sometimes it may be too late and they will not recover but if you catch the signs of over watering early the succulent should survive.

overwatered succulent

This succulent shows classic signs of over watering. The lower leaves are lying flat.  They are also soft, spongy and pale compared to the new leaves growing from the centre.  These leaves will fall off very easily.

Signs of an Under-watered Succulent
An under watered succulent’s upper leaves become dry and crispy, the entire plant becomes shrivelled  and many leaves shrivel at the tips.  The leaves look puckered and dry.
Remedy: Firstly, check the soil, you could be watering the succulent but the soil is not holding any moisture for the roots.  Re-pot the succulent if this is the case.  If the soil is ok just give the plant a good soaking of water and keep in mind this succulent may need watering a little more regularly compared to other species of succulents.

Underwatered succulent leaves

Classic under watering. The leaves are puckered/shrivelled.

Watering mature plants versus new succulents
Established plants will have a stronger root system and tolerate dry conditions better than new plants.  Especially succulents that are growing in the ground.  So a mature plant is more likely to survive longer without water/require less regular watering than a younger one.


echeveria strawberry heart

A mature plant growing in the ground will have established roots and require less watering than a younger plant.

How should I water the succulent leaves I’m propagating?
Until the leaves develop the tiny roots the leaves shouldn’t require any water.  It would not be detrimental to water them but why waste your time doing so!  Once the roots develop a once per week watering should be sufficient, watering the leaf and the soil.  The roots – which are still  above ground  – will absorb any moisture in the air and soil below.

Should I water after re-potting a succulent?
Succulents are the opposite of normal plants and do not require ‘watering in’ or water when re-potted or planted in the ground.  They actually prefer not to watered straight away.

Should I use a moisture metre?
Moisture metres are a great idea to test the moisture in the middle of a pot.  When the top soil may be dry the soil below may still be wet and therefore the pot does not require more water.  You can buy moisture metres from your local hardware store.  

I agree, this is a lot to consider and may sound complicated but just consider the following basic steps for any of your succulents. 

  • check the soil conditions to see if it dry or moist
  • look for signs of over or under watering
  • if you are unsure whether to water – do not water!