The Aeonium Aboreum succulent was one of my very first succulents. It is the epitome of what I believe a succulent should be! Can be grown in full sun, survives on only rainfall in the garden(or a pot) and can be easily propagated. I have seen Aeonium Aboreum (pronounced – Ay O nee um) growing on the side of the road. However, there are numerous other Aeonium’s. In total there are about 35 different species of Aeoniums. Not surprisingly I have only seen about 5-10 different species in my State . Are all the Aeonium species as hardy and what other Aeonium’s are there?
All Aeoniums are winter growers and therefore look their best during the winter months. So don’t be worried if your Aeonium looks different during summer. This is when they are dormant and therefore do not require a lot of water. To cope with summer temperatures they can change their appearance dramatically. If you are not aware of this you can think that there is something wrong with your plant. Many, but not all, Aeoniums are monocarpic. This means that when they flower the flowering stem will die. If the Aeonium is the type that has many stems then only the stem that flowers will die. However, if the plant does not produce multiple stems then the whole plant will die – sadly. Usually the plant will not flower for about 5 years though.
Pests include aphids and mealy bugs, I have also seen snails make a nice meal out of some of my Aeoniums.
Aeonium Aboreum during dormant Summer season look like this
In Winter Aeonium Aboreum look like this- during this growing season
Shape: Any (can be tall and lanky)
Aeonium Aboreum is the most common of all Aeonium species. The Aboreum can grow to the height of a one story house if left to grow as it pleases and not pruned back. It is easily propagated.
Aeonium Undulatum ‘Stalked Aeonium’
Shape: Any (low growing)
One of the larger species of Aeonium with thick stems that grow about 1 metre (3 feet) from the ground. Other rosettes do not branch off the stem like most Aeoniums. The plant is monocarpic so the flowering stem will die when it flowers which is normally after about 5 years. It is easily propagated.
Aeonium Goochiae ‘Ballerina’
This Aenioum is a smaller species in that it is very low growing. It reaches about 20cm (8inches) tall at maximum height. It is slightly hairy and the leaves are a bit sticky. Some have a red tip point on them. It grows in a compact ball shape.
Leaves are covered in small hairs and are sticky
small clumping habitat
Aeonium Goochiae Ballerina
Aeonium Pinwheel is as hardy as the Aboreum and has the added advantage of growing in an amazing spherical compact shape. It is easily propagated and when pruned back it will replace the part of the sphere that has been taken.
Aeonium Decorum ‘Sunburst’
This is a beautiful Aeonium and one that I am reluctant to neglect as I have rarely seen it for sale (at Bunnings or nurseries etc) in South Australia. It is now nearly 2 years old and has produced only two offsets. However, this may be due to the fact that I have kept it in my greenhouse and it has not had a lot of water during its growing season. The new leaves in the centre are a vibrant and deep colour. However, as the leaves get bigger and older they can lose a bit of their colour intensity. I have no had any problems with pests of any kind and it survives with semi regular watering.
|Aeonium Sunburst – when first purchased it in 2016
Aeonium Sunburt-new leaves are more vibrant and older ones
2 years growth. The pups are growing in the shade of the main plant
Aeonium Aboreum ‘Schwartzkopf’
This Aeonium can be absolutely stunning in the Winter and is one of my favourites. It turns a very dark purple when it is grown in the sun, however, if grown in full shade it will be totally green and look like a normal Aeonium Aboreum. (as above)
These are just a few of the different types, the ones that I have and can comment on. Are they all hardy?, I would say the above are. That is; hardy in a Mediterranean climate. Aboreum is definitely in a league of its own when it comes to hardiness however the other species (except Sunburst) have survived on rainfall only in the garden with hardly any attention or care!
It is believed that the Aeoniums that are monocarpic usually only produce a flower when they are a mature plant – say at least 3-5 years old. However, I found my Aeonium Undulatum (as seen above) had a few new stems start to grow a few months ago and these are already starting to flower!! So I am perplexed as to why they are flowering straight away and will see what happens after they have flowered. Watch this space!
New Aeonium stems producing flowers on very small stems!?
If you love succulents you will always want more. If you love succulents you will know that it is not hard to propagate and grow more of the succulents you have. 90% of succulents will produce offsets/babies/pups at some point in their lifespan. Some succulents will start replicating themselves at a very young age whereas others will not until the parent plant is about to die.
Graptoveria multiplying in my garden
One of the many amazing things you can say about succulents is that they are the plants that keep on giving. Yes of course there are other plant species that produce new shoots and offsets but as a type of plant; succulents produce offsets in abundance. Once they are growing in their ‘happy place’ or perfect location there is no stopping them.
What methods can i use to propagate succulents?
There are a few different ways that succulents multiply. Many will naturally produce offsets which grow below and next to the parent plant. Some can be propagated by gently pulling off a leaf – which will grow into a new plant and others will produce new plants simply by pruning back the plant. Of course you can always propagate from seed but you can do that with any plant and even though it is very satisfying to do so it takes a very long time.
Not long after pruning Aeoniums start producing new offsets
Which succulents produce offsets as apposed to propagating from leaves?
The succulents that are the most prolific at producing offsets are some of the most popular. Echeveria, Aloes, Pachyphytum, Pachyveria, Graptopetalum, Graptoveria and Sempervivum genus’, just to name a few, start producing offsets very early in their lifespan. It is not unusual to buy your first plant from a nursery or store that has more than one offset already growing. However, please note that succulents that produce offsets can still be propagated from leaves!!S
Echeveria Princess Anne
What do I do when my succulent starts producing babies?
You can do absolutely nothing when your succulent starts growing a new plant from a fallen leaf or producing an offset. Nature will run its course and a new plant will grow from the leaf and/or plant. You can carry on in the knowledge that sometime in the future (maybe about 3-4 months) you will have a twin of the succulent you purchased.
The tiny balls are Sempervivum offset starting to grow
About 5 months later!
Do succulents that produce offsets also propagate from leaves?
It is important to note that just because a succulent produces offsets it does not mean that you cannot propagate from leaves as well. Satisfation wise, an offset gives you a new plant alot faster than growing it from leaf propagation. Leaf propagation can take up to 12 weeks just to form a tiny plant on the end of the leaf.
When can you transplant an offset?
You can transplant an offset as soon as it has developed its own tiny roots. I would even say you could transplant it before the roots have formed. However, success rates will be higher if you wait for the roots to form. Depending on whether you are in a hurry or not, the longer you leave the offset to develop where it is the stronger the new plant will be. Another consideration is if your offsets are numerous they may all be squashed into the pot and this can hamper growth. If this is the case it would be more beneficial to remove a few of the offsets to make room for more to grow. (see examples below).
Succulents can look amazing mass planted in your garden. See post : Landscaping with succulents
So do not be afraid to use one of the offsets to plant in your garden and start an area dedicatd to a mass planting of succulents. Most succulents that grow numerous offsets are fairly small but can still look amazing in a mass planting.
The answer to the question – which locations do succulents thrive in – is : any and all locations! There are so many succulents that there will always be a species that will thrive in a location in your garden.
If you are a succulent novice or a well seasoned succulent gardener there will always be a new succulent that you acquire that you will be uncertain about which location to put it in. Does it cope with full sun, is it a shade lover?
If the succulent you buy comes with an ID tag (that’s if you are very lucky) its possible it ‘might’ give you a ‘vague’ idea of the sort of growing conditions the succulent would thrive in. General suggestions like ‘full sun’ or partial shade’, ‘fertilise in spring’. They are generalised by the nursery for all plants that they grow. For further explanation on some of these see: (How much sun do succulents need? Morning or Afternoon? Full or Part? )
This ID tag contradicts itself – may tolerate dryness but the soil must not dry out! – not helpful!
But how will you know if your succulent is just surviving or if it is thriving?
Signs that your succulent is just surviving.
There are signs that will tell you that your succulent is not doing well. Such as, stretching (etoliation) from not enough sun/light, wilting leaves from over watering, puckered leaves from under watering and burnt leaves from too much sun. It is surviving but not as well as it could. These signs do not mean that it is dying but it could be doing a lot better in a different location.
Stretching succulents: If your succulent is not receiving enough sun/light and is stretching then it needs to be moved straight away into a position that gives it more light. Stretching (also known as etoliation) is not reversible, the only remedy is to prune the plant back so that it can start again in its new sunnier position where it wont stretch and will grow compact and healthy.
This is an example of an etioliated/stretched succulent. Tall and lanky rather than short and compact.
Burnt leaves: If your succulent has burnt leaves it may be because it has been previously grown in a part sun/part shade situation at the nursery. The good news is that having burnt leaves will not kill a succulent, once the burnt leaves become the oldest leaves they will shrivel and die. The new leaves that grow from the centre will be strong and healthy and will have acclimatised to full sun and will not get sun burnt. Succulents will acclimatise to new locations in 2-3 months
Note: The only exception to this rule is if there is an abnormally hot day/week (around 40C/104F) the chances are that even a succulent growing in full sun can still get sun burnt leaves.
These leave are suburnt.
Wilting/Pale leaves: Over watering can cause the leaves to look pale or yellow and they will wilt. If you notice this on a few leaves then do not water the succulent until you see signs of recovery. This could be weeks or even a month! It may already be too late and the plant will die but you may catch it in time. See post: How often should I water succulents? Do succulents need water?
Puckered Leaves: It does not happen very often but sometimes you can underwater your succulent and it will have puckered leaves. Give the plant a drenching of water and leave it to dry out. Do not make the mistake of then giving it too much water.
Puckered leaves can be a sign of an under watered succulent
Signs that your succulent is thriving
It can take some time to know if your succulent is thriving. It is not something you can know within a week of receiving the plant. The signs that it is thriving are:
– not showing any of the above mentioned conditions
– new growth – especially in the succulent’s growing season
– flowers – a succulent will only flower in the right growing conditions
– pups/babies -succulents will only produce offspring if it has the right growing conditions to do so
– getting to its maximum species size
Succulents can thrive and look different!
A succulent will always adapt to its growing conditions. See example below. Both of these succulents are the same genus/species and are producing babies/pups ie thriving. Sempervivums (House Leeks) are grown on roof tops in Europe so would receive full sun at some times of the year and no sun at others and would therefore look different during different seasons.
These Sempervivum are exactly the same species. The Sempervivum on the left are growing in partial shade. The Sempervivum on the right have 8 hours of full sun.
Whether your succulent is grown in the ground or in a pot. If it is not doing well do not be scared to dig it up and move it or put the pot somewhere else. The majority of succulents are very hardy and if it is not doing well in one position there is no harm in moving it to another location.
I have found that planting a succulent in the garden, that is not doing so well in a pot, makes the world of difference. As long as the soil conditions and drainage are correct the roots of the plant will fair better in the ground, as the conditions are not so variable, compared with a pot which can heat up and dry out quicker and constrict the roots.
The difference between a succulent ‘surviving’ and a succulent ‘thriving’ is location, location, location!
Which succulents grow in full shade?
Do Succulents really prefer Sun?
The human race is a very impatient species. Even more so nowadays with Gen Z wanting everything yesterday. I can understand that when it comes to succulents, I cannot wait till my baby succulents grow and thrive, in the back of my mind though I hear a voice saying ‘succulents are slow growers’……. but are they?
As always, with succulents – due to the vast quantity of species and varieties – the answer is yes and no.
What is the definition of a fast growing plant?
It depends on your individual interpretation of what is slow or fast! To me growing overnight is fast growing! The only plants that literally grow overnight, that I remember from science class, are water cress and mung beans. Some varieties within a species will grow faster than other varieties within the same species. To me a fast growing plant is one that you can see a difference in size within a few months.
Each species will have some varieties that are faster growers than other varieties in the same species. In general though I believe that most species are either fast, moderate or slow growing.
Which conditions increase the growth rate?
There are a two conditions that will effect the growth rate of a succulent.
Growing Season A succulent will grow faster during its growing season than it will in its dormant season. Some succulents do not grow at all in their dormant season and some will grow; but a lot slower. (see post: When do succulents have their growing and dormant seasons? ) So if you purchase/receive a succulent in its dormant season do not be worried if it sits there doing (almost) nothing.
Environment How fast a succulent grows will also depend on environmental conditions. Sunlight, temperature, soil and moisture can all affect the growth rate of a succulent. If the plant has its ideal amount of light, temperature and moisture and grown in the right soil medium it will grow at is optimum rate.
Which succulents are fast growing?
Firstly let me say what I consider to be fast growing. If I can see a succulent has increased in its overall size by about 25% within a 4-6 month period I would consider it to be fast growing. I take a photo of a succulent the first day it arrives, including its name. If you are like me and check your succulents every day you would not notice their growth. Looking back at the original photo can show you how much they have grown in that period.
The following succulents are species that I grow in my garden and have witnessed their growth first hand.
The Aeonium Aboreum below was planted in the middle of its growing season and had formed a thick mass after only 4 months. It would have been a totally different story if I had planted them in the summer when this species of succulent is dormant. (see post: Indestructable…..Aeonium Aboreum ) Don’t forget succulents have a dormant season as well – so make sure you know when this is.
Most Echeveria are fast growing. As long as you can see new leaves forming in the centre of the Echeveria then they are liking their environment and growing as fast as they can. Most of my Echeveria varieties grow for about 9 months of the year due to our short winters.
April 2017 – 4 months later
Graptoveria are a very close relative to the Echeveria species as they are a hybrid of an Echeveria and Graptopetulum (see post: What is the difference between an Echeveria and Graptoveria succulent?) Therefore they also are generally a fast growing species.
Graptoveria Fred Ives
The Crassula species is also a fast growing plant. Especially Crassula Ovata which is also a very hard variety.
Research on the world wide web indicates that the following succulents are of the fast growing variety.
Kalanchoe fedtschenkoi – Lavender Sallops
Sedum rubrotinctum – Jelly Bean Plant
Crassula perforata – String of Buttons
Which succulents are slow growing?
There are a few slow growing succulents.
Euphorbia Millie – Crown of Thorns
Euphorbia Milli is quite a slow growing succulent. The one below suddenly lost all its leaves and flowers so I moved it to a different position and it grew again – but very slowly. It took 8 months just to grow its leaves back but still is not any taller.
Giant Barrell Cactus
There are some succulents that literally grow so slowly you wonder if they are growing at all. The Giant Cactus Barrell (below) is one of these. However, they can live for approximately 100 years.
Lithops are very slow growing but like the Giant Barrell Cactus they live a long time.
How long does it take to grow succulents from a leaf?
Once again depending on conditions a leaf can sprout roots within a week and start to sprout within a 3 week period. To grow to a new plant – depending on the species and variety you can have a new succulent baby within a 3 -4 month period. This is a huge generalisation but has been my experience with a lot of leaf propagation I have tried.
In summary, I would say, most of the popular and more common succulents that are available in Australia are moderate to fast growing. Taking into consideration the general growing conditions of succulents; the weather in most parts of Australia are ideal and even with their dormant season thrown into the mix you will still see a huge difference after one year of growth. Below is a photo of my front succulent garden bed with just a 9 month growing period.
Most plants have a growing season which is generally spring and summer and are then dormant during winter. The dormant months give the plant time to rest and gather strength for the growing season.
Why do I need to know when a succulents growing season is?
It is handy to know when a growing season is so that if your succulent is ‘not’ growing and looking a bit different then you know it is in its dormant season. (I am mainly referring to Aeoniums here! – see below) The growing season can give you an idea of when you should expect your succulent to produce new growth. If you like to fertilise your succulents, the beginning of the growing season is the time to do so. If you are transplanting it is best to do so at the right time of year. Also, watering requirements may be different during the growing season compared to the dormant season.
However, saying that, some succulents actually seem to grow all year round!
What if my succulent grows during the expected dormant season?
Plants do not have an ‘internal clock’ but rather grow due to their environment. They determine when the appropriate time to grow or be dormant is. A vast majority of succulents are ‘opportunistic growers’, even if they are classified as “winter or summer growers” it really depends on the local climate and growing conditions. Opportunistic growers will grow any time of the year that the conditions are right. Mostly this depends on temperature. If the succulent has a summer growing season and temperatures stay elevated through autumn then the succulent will continue to grow. It will only slow its growth when the temperatures start to drop. Even when a succulent is in its dormant season it may still grow; just at a slower rate.
It is impossible to list when all succulents have their growing or dormant season. A rule of thumb is to determine where their origins are.
Autumn-Winter Growing/Summer Dormant
Succulents from a Mediterranean climate ie The Canary Islands receive the majority or all of their water during the winter. Therefore most of these plants are dormant in the summer. Some autumn/winter growers are: most Aeoniums, a few Euphorbias, Haworthia and Kalanchoe.
Summer Growing/Winter Dormant
Succulents from the central American region, South Africa and Madagascar are summer growers and dormant in winter. Such as Echeveria, Crassula, some Euphorbia. Graptoveria, Graptopetulam, Pachyveria and Sempervivum to name a few.
What are watering requirements during the dormant season?
Generally when a succulent is in its dormant season it is best to water sparingly. However, if you are like me, and have your succulents growing in the ground make sure that they are planted in a rockery, on a slope or if on flat ground; grow them in a mound so that rain will drain away quickly.
The Aeonium species is one particular succulent that has its growing season in the winter and is dormant in the summer. When dormant the rosettes close up very tightly so it looks different in the summer compared to winter. (see below). Most Aeonium also flower during the winter months as well.
dormant Aeonium rosette
growing season – winter
the rosette is large and open-winter
Agave’s have their main growing season during the summer months. It is reported that they do require some moisture during the summer months, however, I do not water any of my Agave Attenuata during the summer, they survive on summer rainfall only. Agave do have a dormant season in the winter if you live in the colder parts of the world. In Australia, however, they may still grow at a reduced rate depending on how cold the winter is.
Most echeveria have their growing season during summer but for some varieties it is during spring. However, if winter and autumn months are fairly mild they will continue to grow slowly during their dormant period.
This echeveria agavoides has been merrily growing (and flowering) through autumn to the beginning of winter.
Some Aloes have their growing season in the winter and some are in the summer. It is on a species by species basis. Most, however, have their growing season in summer and flower in the winter.
If you are like me and want to grow succulents in your garden rather than in pots then the questions will arise. ‘Which are the best plants to grow succulents with?’ The most obvious answer is going to be : other succulents. The reason being: other succulents will prefer the same growing conditions. ie not too much water, they will love the sun and well drained soil. However, you can grow succulents with other plants as long as you consider a few things.
Succulents will die very quickly if watered every day, so do not put them with plants that thrive in a moist soil and require water on a daily basis. There are many native and other plants that can do without water every day and can be watered weekly. Many succulents grow well under trees as they are protected from rain showers and the ground does not get as saturated.
In general, all succulents will grow their best in a sunny position. Many will get leggy (etiolated) without at least six hours of sun and many become more colourful and flower more profusely with eight or more hours of direct sun.
For this reason if you are planting succulents with other plants be sure to grow your succulents at the front of the garden bed (or sunniest position) so they receive enough sun. If another plant grows (over time) to a height that shades your succulents they will not do very well. Most succulents are low growing plants so they will look great at the front of a garden bed.
Succulents do ‘not’ require a humus rich soil. Most succulents originate from desert or semi desert areas where the soil is mainly sand and does not have any nutrients. They ‘will’ survive in normal soil and normal potting soil. Clay soil is not ideal for succulents as it holds water and can rot succulent roots. So do not companion them with plants that require a humus rich soil.
So you can grow succulents in most soils except clay. The main point to remember is to make sure that the soil drains well, so planting in a raised garden bed or on a rockery with other plants is ideal. If you plant succulents in a flat garden bed you can build a mound above the garden floor and then plant the succulent in the mound so that the water will run off.
Can you grow succulents with succulents?
Succulents love growing in small confined spaces such as rock crevices and rockeries and also love being squashed in a pot with other succulents. As they grow as a plant they grow squashed together. (see below) The only possible problem that can develop is if one of the succulents develops mealy bug. This can easily spread to other succulents when they are planted close together. If this does happen it is best to remove the infected succulent as soon as possible. This can be done by cutting off the part of the plant that is infected by the mealy bugs.
Growing succulents in pots
Growing different succulents together in pots look great. They will outgrow the pot eventually but as they are succulents you can prune the plants that are getting too large and transplant it in another pot or elsewhere in the garden. ( see post: Succulent Planters/Containers – should I buy one? )