How much sun do succulents need? Morning or Afternoon? Full or Part?

How much sun do succulents need? Morning or Afternoon? Full or Part?

The subject of how much sun succulents need is always a hot topic among succulent lovers, newbies and experts alike.  How much is too much?  Is morning sun ok but afternoon is a no no?   Will my succulent die if it gets too much sun? What is the definition of full sun, partial sun, dappled sun, partial shade and full shade?

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants to convert ‘light energy’ (the sun) into chemical energy that can be released to fuel the plants’ growth. In low light, plants need to absorb maximum light for photosynthesis if they are to survive. In high light the plant needs to reflect some light for photosynthesis if they are to survive.

What is the definition of Full Sun/Partial Sun/Partial Shade/Dappled Sun & Full Shade?
Some succulents prefer full sun and some prefer partial shade, partial sun and a few prefer full shade, but what does this mean. I found the definition below on a gardening website which clarifies the meaning of these requirements.

  • Full Sun means 6 full hours of direct sunlight. The six hours could be from 8 – 3 or 12 – 6; anytime during the day. The hours can also be three morning hours, plus three afternoon hours.
  • Partial Sun / Partial Shade: These two are interchangeable to mean 3-6 hours of sunlight each day. While the terms are interchangeable, there is a default understanding.  Partial shade refers to morning and early afternoon sun, while a plant listed as partial sun means relief from the intense late afternoon sun  ie requires shade from a structure or a tree.
  • Dappled Sun is similar to partial shade. The plants are getting partial sun as it makes it’s way through the branches of a tree.
  • Full Shade means less than 3 hours of direct sun each day, best if it’s morning sun. But even in the absence of  direct sunlight, full shade can be bright light. Plus, full shade likes a filtered  sunlight the remainder of the day. Every plant needs some sun; even those that thrive in full shade.

The above would only be a guideline.  This does not mean that if your succulent has more than 6 hours of sun you need to move it to shade or it will die. Some areas of my garden receive sun from early morning to late afternoon which is more than 6 hours. These have succulents growing and coping well with the large amount of sun they are receiving.

What is the different between morning and afternoon sun?
Many succulent enthusiasts advise that succulents prefer morning sun for optimum growth.  I am unsure why exactly. From a Iayman’s point of view I would say that morning sun is less strong/vibrant than afternoon sun.  Morning sun is less intense and less heat is generated from the sun in early morning. However, I have searched the internet and I am unable to find any science to explain the real difference between morning and afternoon sun.  As per the previous paragraph ‘full sun’ can be 6 hours of sun whether it be in the morning or the afternoon.

Aeonium Pinwheel

Aeonium Pinwheel

Echeveria Elegans

Echeveria Elegans

Echeveria in full sun

E. Strawberry Heart

The succulents above have survived and thrived 6 hours of afternoon sun!

Can you tell by looking at the succulent if it will cope in full sun?
There are some succulents which have characteristics that give us a clue as to whether the plant will grow and cope with full sun. Succulents such as the Cotyledon Orbiculata, some Echeveria and some Kalanchoe have a waxy coating on their leaves.  These succulents grown in full sun will produce copious quantities of the white waxy coating.The coating reflects a high percentage of the sun’s light.  The coating is thicker in full sun and less so when not required. Similarly a coat of hairs on Sempervivum leaves protect the plant from a high percentage of the sun’s light.  In general, plants that cope in full sun have small thick leaves as opposed to shade plants have large thin leaves.   

Kalanchoe

Echeveria with white powder protectant

Echeveria

cotlydon

Cotlydon

Examples of succulents with waxy coating protectant 

Can succulents get sunburn?
Yes succulents ‘can’ get sunburn!  It looks exactly what you think it would look like – brown or black markings along the leaves that are facing the sun.  The good news is that it will not ‘usually’ kill the plant, the succulent will recover.  It happens when a succulent has been grown in the shade or partial shade and then moved to sun/full sun.  The new leaves that are produced while in the sun position will cope with the sun and not get sunburn. When the leaves that have been burnt get older they will shrivel and die just like any other non sunburnt leaves on the plant.

Sedum succulent with sunburn

This Sedum was sunburnt when i moved it to full sun. As you can see the leaves on the top are strong and healthy.

Some points to remember.
– Even though a succulent may be able to survive full sun be aware that air flow is very important.
– Succulents will adapt and evolve (acclimatise) according to the amount of sun/shade they receive.
– Plants can change their leaf angles and orientation in response to a change in sun conditions.

Sempervivums – spectacular, hardy and monocarpic!

Sempervivums – spectacular, hardy and monocarpic!

Being a lover of the hardier kinds of succulent, Sempervivum are certainly up there in my top 10.  They are just as hardy as any Echeveria, Crassula or Agave succulent in my opinion.  They can survive heat, drought, frost and general neglect and still look fabulous.  In Europe their common name is House Leek, in the United States it is Hen & Chicks. Here are a few facts and pointers for the Sempervivum genus.

Succulent Family
A member of the Crassulacae family Sempervivum are native to the mountains of central and southern Europe and can grow at 3000-8000 feet above sea level. There are about 50 different species.  They vary in size, form and colour and grow in rosette formation. The name Sempervivum comes from the Latin words semper, meaning “always,” and vivus, meaning “living.”  Which describes its everlasting nature. Pronounced: Semper Vee Vum.

Characteristics
Sempervivums come in many colours such as pink, orange, yellow, red, green and brown.  To see its colour in full glory they need to grow in full sun. If not grown in full sun they will grow as green in colour.  Mature plants can be from half an inch to 6 inches (1 to 15 cm) in diameter.

Sempervivum Tectorum

Sun Lovers
Even though Sempervivums are native to Europe which is not well known for its hot summers.  Sempervivum cope, and dare I even say ‘love’, full sun. They do not need  a lot of water and are drought tolerant.  This is great news for hot Australian Summers, however I would be inclined to cover them if the temperature if forecast over 40C/104F as their leaves may get sun burnt.  I would suggest that this would not kill the plant but probably just look a bit unsightly until the sun burnt leaves shrivel and drop off.

Frost Tolerant
On the other side of the coin Sempervivum are one of the most frost resistant succulents.  This would be due to their origins being in mountainous regions of Europe. They can survive in extremely cold temperatures, most will survive temperatures as low as -30F/-34C apparently.

Light and Water Requirements
Sempervivum can survive in full sun and tolerate drought conditions.  They do not require a lot of water but can also survive a wet winter as long as they are growing in well drained soil or on a slope if grown in the garden.  If grown in pots move them under the eaves of the house to avoid temperature fluctuations and avoid wet winters.

Sempervivum monocarpic succulent

Hairy Semps
Some species of Sempervivum are…….. hairy. That is the only way to describe them. They have tiny white hairs growing along their leaves and also on the tip.  This is the best way to distinguish a Sempervivum from any other rosette forming succulent.  Only Sempervivum have these tiny hairs.

Hairs on Semperivum

Hairs on Sempervivum

Sempervivum covered with cobwebs
Sempervivum Arachnoidium looks like it is covered in spiders webs.  (see below).  It is another amazing succulent.  The cobweb starts off in the middle of the plant and eventually spreads to cover all leave in the rosette.  It can then spread to cover the clump of Sempervivums.

sempervivum arachnoidium succulent

Sempervivum Arachnoidium Pygmalion

Propagation
Most Sempervivum are prolific at producing offsets which grow off the side of the parent plant and produce a large clump. However, some Sempervivum produce offsets on the end of long stems which are called ‘stolons’ these then set down roots at a distance from the parent plant. Once the roots have developed the plant can be grown independently from the parent plant.

Sempervivum propagation

Sempervivum Tectorum with stolons

Flowering – and the bad news
Flowers are shades of pink, red and sometimes yellow. If and when Sempervivum flower it happens in mid to late Summer. The bad news with regard to Sempervivum flowers is that Sempervivum succulents are monocarpic which means that the parent plant dies after flowering. It will shrivel and die.  It can then be easily pulled out and this will allow room for the pups to spread. Sempervivums are perennials so they live for at least 3 years or more before they flower. Sempervivum flowers produce a star-shaped fruit containing seeds which can be collected and grown. See Post : Which succulents die after flowering?

Uses
In Europe Sempervivums were traditionally grown on roofs.  They were thought to ward off evils spirits and raging storms.  Below are a couple of examples from Pinterest.  I assume they would need to be grown on a pitched roof for water to run off so as the roots are not sitting in water.

Image result for sempervivum green roof Image result for sempervivum green roof

Problems
Being as hardy Sempervivum are they do not have many additional problems to deal with.  Any succulent is prone to mealy bugs or powdery mildew and root rot from over watering.

Which succulents die after flowering?

Which succulents die after flowering?

I was shocked and a bit devastated when I found out that some succulents die after flowering.  It’s not something you should blurt out to a novice succulent lover!  But do not worry, of the thousands of different succulents there are only a very small number that are ‘monocarpic’.

Monocarpic plants flower, set seed and then die. Other words with the same meaning are hapaxanth and semelparous.  However monocarpic is the term that is used to describe the succulent process.  Probably because it is easier to say!

Monocarpic plants can be divided into annuals, biennials and perennials. Annuals flower and set seed in one year, biennials two seasons and perennials sometimes take many years to flower.

So the question is: how long does a succulent live before it flowers??  The good new is:  Succulents that are monocarpic can still live a long life as they are perennials.  Below are the succulents that I am aware are monocarpic.

Agave – Attenuata/Americana (Century Plant)
The above monocarpic Agave’s can take 10 -25 years before the parent plant flowers.  When it is ready the plant uses all its energy to produce a thick stem which grows from the centre of the rosette in a relatively short period of time – sometimes less than a week. The stem can grow up to 2.5 metres (8 feet) high.  The Americana (Century Plant) has a stem that can grow to 9 metres (30 feet).  Once it flowers the parent plant will wither and die, Compared to other succulents the Agave parent plant can take months or even years to die.  Agave pups grow along the stem of the flower, these can be harvested and replanted.  Any pups that have grown off to the side of the plant will not die, only the rosette that has produced the flower stem.

Some, but not all, Agave are moncarpic.

Variegated Agave Succulent

Sempervivum
All succulents in the Sempervivum genus are monocarpic.  At first this made me think twice about buying Sempervivum succulents. Each rosette only flowers once and then dies. However, most species produce lots of offsets which makes up for any loss after flowering.  It will take 3 to 4 years for the rosette to produce a flower and die, in this time the parent plant would have produced many pups/babies to continue on in your garden.

monocarpic sempervivum

Sempervivum Tectorum

In Europe they are known as ‘houseleeks’ but in the USA Sempevervivum are known as Hen & Chicks.  However, some people call the Echeveria genus Hen & Chicks as well. Thus, it can get very confusing and people think that their Echeveria succulents are monocarpic.  It is ‘only’ Sempervivum Hen & Chicks which are monocarpic not Echeveria.

There are some Sempervivum and Echeveria that look very similar, they both have rosettes.  If you think your succulent is a Sempervivum and it flowers – from the centre of the rosette- and does not die – suffice to say this is an Echeveria.

The photos of the sempervivum below show small offsets from the sides.  These can be mistaken for flowers.  They are not flowers but new plants/pups sprouting.  When a Sempervivum flowers it is from the centre of its rosette, not to the side.

 

Aeonium
Some Aeonium will flower within two years while others may take 10-20 years before they flower. They die completely after flowering but before do they will have produced offsets as well as large numbers of seeds. Not all Aeonium die after flowering, but for the one’s that do it is too late for the plant once the flower stalk starts to develop.

Aeonium Aboreum Fire Wise Succulent

I found this Aeonium (below) in a nursery.  It looks very pretty, but as it was flowering I figured it wouldn’t have a very long life span in my garden if it was an Aeonium that was monocarpic!  Something to be aware of for monocarpic succulents.

Aeonium flowering

Kalanchoe 
The Kalanchoe ‘Flapjack’ is a monocarpic plant, once the Kalanchoe flowers new “baby plants” can be seen at the base of the plant and along the flower stalk. They can easily be propagated from the stalk.

IMG_5799Propagating Kalanchoes after bloomed!

So, if you have any of the monocarpic succulents you should be prepared for its dramatic flowering death at some point!

 

What is the difference between Echeveria & Pachyveria?

What is the difference between Echeveria & Pachyveria?

In the Crassula family there are plants that closely resemble other plants leading to confusion. Echeverias are one of the most popular and beautiful succulents (see post: Echeveria Genus ) Often overlooked or simply confused with Echeverias are two other plants that look like Echeveria: Graptopetalums  (see post:  What is the difference between an Echeveria and Graptoveria succulent? ) and Pachyphytums. They have been hybridised with Echeveria and are called Graptoveria and Pachyveria.  Pachyveria is a hybrid between Echeveria and Pachyphytum.

Pachyphytum
The word Pachyphytum comes from the Greek word ‘ thick leaves’. Their leaves are plumper than an Echeveria hence their name.  Below are photos from Pinterest of some Pachyphytums.

Pachyphytum compactum 'Little Jewel' - Mountain Crest Gardens. I am obsessed with this little quartz looking succulent.

Pachyphytum Compactum

 Pachyphytum Hookeri

Pachyphytum Hookeri

Pachyphytum oviferum - Pink Moonstone

Pachyphytum oviferum

Pachyphytums are similar to Echeveria.  Other than their appearance they are also drought-tolerant, cope with winter rain and cold temperatures, tolerate full sun and poor soil.  However, they are more delicate, their leaves can fall off with the lightest touch.  The falling leaf will easily propagate. Like Echeveria they grow in clumps. Pachyphytum’s are also native to Mexico.

Pachyveria
Below are photos of some Pachyveria from Pinterest.  As you can see, to look at, some species are very similar to Echeveria.  If the plant did not have an ID you may think it is an Echeveria.  Also, it would not surprise me if it had been labelled incorrectly by the nursery or the store you are purchasing from.

PACHYVERIA CLAVIFOLIA

Pachyveria Clavifolia

Pachyveria Glauca

Pachyveria Glauca

Pachyveria 'Peaceful'

Pachyveria Peaceful

Pachyveria Blue Haze

Pachyveria Blue Haze

Pachveria 'Elaine Reinelt'

Pachveria Elaine Reinelt

Pachyveria Haagei

Pachyveria Haagei

The species traits that give away that it is a Pachyveria and not an Echeveria are:
– plump leaves. Blue Haze, and Haagei are good example of this.
– elongated leaves. Glauca and Haagei are good example of this.

What are the differences between an Echeveria and a Pachyveria?
– Pachyverias are more cold tolerant succulents enduring quite low temperatures compared to Echeveria
– Their leaves are more likely to fall off at a mere touch where most Echeveria are quite hard to pull off

What are the similarities to an Echeveria?
– their growing periods are in the summer
– they flower in spring/summer
– drought tolerant
– love full sun
– prefer well drained soil
– propagated by leaves
– native to Mexico

In conclusion, if you have a Pachyveria and you believe it is an Echeveria and you cared for it as you would an Echeveria it would not really make any difference.  The plus side being that if there were some low temperatures that you were not expecting the Pachyveria would be less likely to be effected than an Echeveria would.

The only tip for when planting a Pachyveria in the garden would be not to plant them where they can easily be knocked by passing pets or humans as their leaves may be knocked off on a regular basis.

Landscaping with succulents

Landscaping with succulents

Lots of people keep their succulents in pots so they can control their environment.  If you live anywhere in Australia you can grow almost any succulent in your garden.  Landscaping with succulents is a great idea as once they have established they do not need a lot of attention.  There are many more reasons to landscape with succulents ………

Succulents for all areas of the garden
There are hundreds of different succulent species and varieties available.  There are succulents that grow and cope with full sun (see post : Which succulents survive in full sun? ). Succulents that grow in full shade. (see post: Which succulents grow in full shade? ) Succulents that cope with humidity.  Succulents that can survive frost.  (see post : Which succulents can survive frost? )  I think you get the idea.  So wherever you live and whether you have a sunny or shady garden you can landscape with succulents.

succulents in the garden

Heights and Sizes
Succulents come in all shapes,sizes and colours. So if you require low growing ground cover or bushy succulents there should be one that suits your situation for full sun, full shade or part shade/part sun position.  Remember to find out how large a succulent grows.  Plant the larger growing succulents at the back of the garden bed so they do not shade the lower growing succulents in the front.

Succulent Garden

My front succulent garden with larger succulents at the back such as agave and a larger aloe. Smaller succulents at the front.

Mass Planting
Mass plantings of any plant look great.  However, mass planting of succulents looks amazing.  Unless you buy succulents in bulk, which of course can be expensive you can start your mass planting with one plant and then use cuttings and offset plants to add to your mass planting. The photos below are from Pinterest of some examples of mass plantings of succulents.

Oh my I need this it looks like the ocean. How awesome would that be in a garden. Succulent border - Massed Echeveria elegans with pots of what looks like Echeveria ' Perle von Nurnberg' by Missdove If you think you are the busiest person in your home or officeThere are several cleaning companies out there that are available anytime for the benefit of your good health and refreshing environment. http://glenburniecarpetcleaning.net/ Landscaping is one of the easiest ways to liven up your outdoor area. A little life and color goes a long way and if you're setting up for home like me, the work you do will have the added benefit of making your yard look better than blowing cash on flowers for one day.
Echeveria 'Gilva Spreader' in the foreground; to its left is Iris foetidissima 'Variegata;' in front of terracota pot is Calamintha nepeta. For the rest click through. Morning in the garden . . . by hortulus Spiral aloes (Aloe polyphylla) at Succulent Gardens nursery, Castroville, CA mass planting of aeoniums

Firewise Succulents
Succulents are known as water wise plants but they also have fire retardant properties, so they are also fire-wise. Due to their ability to store water in the their leaves and stems succulents do not really burn – they cook, bake or boil but they do not burst into flames or spread flames. While succulents cannot stop a fire, they can help protect your property from embers and slow the passage of flames.  This is a great reason to landscape with succulents.  (see post: Fire-wise succulents – surviving a bush fire with a succulent garden! )

Gabion Wall
I built the Gabion wall below myself (ok with a little help from my husband-he cut the wire to size).  The rest was all me. It took about 4 weekends. Along with my love for succulents I also admire gabion walls.  The two look great together.  I must admit the position of this gabion is not the best for succulents.  The succulents only receive afternoon sun for a short while in the winter which is not really ideal.  However, they have still increased in size and grown really well.  A gabion has great drainage which succulents love.

January 2017

Finished

July 2017

Succulents love growing in walls
Below is another part of my garden that I used succulents.  Many succulents grow in rock crevices in the wild.  A wall is an ideal place to grow succulents due to the excellent drainage. The wall receives full afternoon sun so it will be interesting to see how they cope in the height of summer. I have used Echeveria as they have coped with full sun in my front garden.

living succulent wall

 

Succulent wall. Awe-inspiring.

This succulent wall is amazing but would take a lot of time and dedication. Pinterest photo.

Established Succulent Gardens
I found the following photos on Pinterest of established succulent gardens.  They look amazing and its great to see that people do landscape with succulents.  Succulents grow well with other succulents and also look great in mass plantings.

California drought tolerant succulent garden tapestry with Golden barrel cactus, Echinocactus grusonii, Aloe elgonica, A. cameronii, Senecio; design Jeff Moore Agave 'Blue Flame'
Echeveria elegans (blue), Kalanchoe thyrsiflora (Flapjacks) Succulent ideas for weddings and gardens | Buy direct from Grower – Succulent… Succulent garden | Flickr - Photo Sharing!

Tips for planting in the garden
When planting succulents in the ground make sure you plant them on a mound rather than in a depression as you would with a non succulent plant.  This will ensure that rain will run off the mound rather than pool in the depression around the plant. Succulents can survive with a fair bit of rainfall as long as the water does not pool around the roots. (see post:  Should I grow succulents in a pot or the ground? )

 

 

How long do succulents live?

How long do succulents live?

I often wonder how long a succulent will live for when I buy it. I also have this thought when I have nurtured a succulent for a long period of time and then it dies. Do the different species and varieties live for different periods of time?  I think this is quite a hard question to answer for any particular succulent.  How long do succulents live, do they have a specific lifespan?

Nature versus Nuture
Firstly, a plant’s lifespan in nature will be different from a cultivated plant. Secondly, a plant’s lifespan will vary depending on the conditions it lives through/in ie in the ground or in a pot, the right amount of water, sun, temperature, soil conditions etc.

What is the definition of a lifespan?
Some succulents flower and then die but then then produce offsets/pups … are the offsets considered the same life span, or a new one? Some succulents die back and then re grow, with a ‘new’ plant growing from the old one… is this part of the same life span? I suppose that is something you can decide for yourself. I personally believe that if the succulent dies, even if it has produced a baby, that would be the end of its lifespan.  Of course it is easier to cope with the death of your succulent if you have a few babies to be going on with.

Echeveria Agavoides pups

Echeveria Agavoides Molded Wax offsets

There is very little information on the internet about the lifespans of succulents in general. One way of finding out how long a particular succulent may live is to ask the question about the succulent you are interested in on social media groups such as Facebook and/or Reddit or on Quora. It is not very scientific but will give you some idea.  The more specialised a succulent is, the less likely it is to live a long life.  I have found that the hardier and more common succulent plants do have some information and are the ones with notable lifespans.

Agave/Century Plant
The agave or century plant has a lifespan around 25 years, sometimes up to 30.  It is a Monocarpic succulent. This means that when it produces its flower stalk  the main plant will then die after producing many baby offsets.

Century Plant Agave Attenuata Succulent and Cacti


Crassula Ovata – Jade Plant 
The Crassula Ovata succulent often has a starring role in my blog posts and this post is one of them.  I have a Jade Plant which has been growing in my garden for over 22 years and is still growing strong.  I have also found an article on the internet that stated a jade plant had survived 30 years.

crassula aborescens succulent

This Crassula is over 20 years old

Crassula Ovata Jade Plant Succulent

This Jade Plants is currently 22 years old.

Echeveria
It is hard to find any information regarding the lifespan of the Echeveria Genus. As mentioned previously it depends on how a lifespan is determined. Many of the Echeveria species produce offsets/babies/pups continuously throughout their growing season – each year. So if you buy an Echeveria that does produce offsets (most – ‘not all’ produce offsets) unless something goes horribly wrong, you will always have that plant in some form.  Even if an Echeveria gets root rot and the parent plant dies, most offsets usually survive. The Echeveria Elegans below is approximately 3 years old and keeps producing offsets which then become part of the plant. The plant is strong and healthy and has coped in all weather, a cold wet winter and a very hot summer.  I am assuming it will live on for a few years to come.

Echeveria Elegans

Echeveria Elegans

Sempervivum
Likewise with the Sempervivum genus it is also hard to find any information with regard to the lifespan.  As with the Echeveria, Sempervivums produce offsets but more prolifically.  So once purchased your supply of this succulent would also live on for years to come.  Not all Semperivum produce offsets either.  So keep this in mind when you are purchasing the succulent if you have longevity in mind.

Sempervivum

Aloe
The aloe vera succulent must be about 3-4 years old before the inner gel of the leaves can be used for skin treatments.  The gel can then be used until the plant is 12 years old.  So this gives us an indication of how long the Aloe Vera succulent lives for. Aloe succulents also produces offsets, so as per the Echeveria and Sempervivum genus you should always have an Aloe producing offsets once purchased.

Using propagation and offsets for longevity
As well as using succulent offsets to continue your love of that particular succulent you can also propagate your succulents very easily by growing a new plant from a leaf or beheading a plant or cutting off a stem and propagating a new plant.  That is one of the wondrous facts about succulents, they are so easily propagated.  No matter the lifespan the majority of succulents are easily propagated so that, should you wish to, you can always have more succulents living and giving you pleasure in your garden. (see post: How to Propagate Succulents.)

Last year I visited a nursery that had been growing succulents for 20 years.  The gardens surrounding the nursery had been growing for about the same time.  Surviving on natural rainfall.

Prickly Pear Cacti

Century Plant

20 year old cacti

Cracker Barrell Cactus

 

large Succulent plant crassula aborescens succulent
Where do succulents originate and why it is good to know?

Where do succulents originate and why it is good to know?

People often use ‘native’ plants in their garden as they are native to their Country and grow in the conditions typical of their area.  So it makes sense to know the conditions that succulents grow in, in their native countries as this can help understand the needs of that particular succulent. Succulents have adapted and survived in many other countries but they will grow better if they are grown in conditions similar to the ones of their country of origin. Knowing where a particular succulent plant originates provides two significant insights into its needs: its growing season and its range of acceptable temperatures.

Succulents, Nature, Flora, Alpines

Most of the commonly grown succulents originate from areas that receive very sporadic rainfall. Contrary to popular belief, succulents do not only originate from deserts. Few plants actually survive in a true desert (with less than 25cm of annual rain). Most grow in semi-deserts which have poor soil (not just pure sand), sparse vegetation and rocky outcrops. Succulents can survive in varying conditions from humid dark jungles to the desert with scorching days and freezing nights.

Succulents are found primarily in Mexico, South America, Central America, East Africa, Arabia, Madagascar, India, South Africa and parts of Europe.

Here are a few examples:

Echeveria / Graptopetulum / Sedum  / Agave
Of the 154 species of Echeveria around 130 of them originate from Mexico. Agave is native to the hot and arid regions of Mexico as are Sedum and Graptopetulum.

Most Mexican succulents that grow at altitudes of 1200 m (4000 feet) will survive some sub freezing weather, however the succulents that originate from coastal Mexico can rarely tolerate frost.  So make sure that you know which part of Mexico they originate from.

These are just a few of of the astonishingly beautiful plants I saw this weekend while attending the 4th annual Succulent Extravaganza at Succulent Gardens in Castroville. With many reservoirs in C…

Mexican winters are mild, temperatures average around the 20 -24 Celcius (high 68 to 74° Fahrenheit) and in summer the average temperature is around 28 degrees Celsius (83° Fahrenheit).

This does not mean if your succulent comes from Mexico you have to re-create the exact conditions so that the succulent survives.  Succulents are very adaptable and will adapt to the climate they are living in. It just means their natural habitat will give you an idea of the conditions that they will do well in.

Image result for agave in native habitat

If your succulent hails from Mexico then it will like lots of sunshine,will probably be quite hardy, not require a lot of water and can grow in a rockery.

On the other side of the coin…..

Sempervivum / Sedums
Sempervivum – also known as house leeks and hen and chicks, survive from  Morocco to Iran, through the mountains of Iberia, the Alps, Carpathians, Balkan mountains, Turkey and the Armenian mountains. Their ability to store water in their thick leaves allows them to live on sunny rocks and stony places in the mountain, sub- alpine and alpine belts.

Their natural habitats are typically 3000 – 8000 ft above sea level in mountainous regions of central and southern Europe and the Mediterranean islands.  They would be used to summer rain and humidity and not cope so well in dry heat with intense sun, they are more used to hazy sun.

Sempervivum growing in their natural habitat in Italian Alps

Image result for kalanchoe in natural habitat Image result for kalanchoe in natural habitat

Kalanchoe growing in their natural habitat

How can I find out where my succulent originates?
There are 1000’s of succulents species/varieties, sometimes its hard enough to identify the plant. There are ways that you can find out the identification of your succulent first. (see post: Where can I identify my Succulents?)  or (An easy way to identify your succulent variety!)

Then to find out where the succulent originates I use a great website called http://www.worldofsucculents.com 

It has a tab called ‘Succulentopedia’.  You can then browse by Succulent Scientific Name /Common Name /Genus/ Family or Origin.  You can then search by the succulent Genus – ie Echeveria and it will tell you the origins or that Genus or you can search by the particular scientific name of the succulent.

You can find a lot more than just the origin of succulents on this site.  There are also ‘how to care guides’ and some amazing photos too.

If you find a particular succulent that survives and thrives in your garden, find out the origin of the species and see what other succulents are from that area and they should also do well.

 

 

How fast do succulents grow?

How fast do succulents grow?

The human race is a very impatient species. Even more so nowadays with Gen Z wanting everything yesterday.  I can understand that when it comes to succulents, I cannot wait till my baby succulents grow and thrive, in the back of my mind though I hear a voice saying ‘succulents are slow growers’……. but are they?

As always, with succulents – due to the vast quantity of species and varieties – the answer is yes and no.

What is the definition of a fast growing plant?
It  depends on your individual interpretation of what is slow or fast!  To me growing overnight is fast growing! The only plants that literally grow overnight, that I remember from science class, are water cress and mung beans. Some varieties within a species will grow faster than other varieties within the same species. To me a fast growing plant is one that you can see a difference in size within a few months.

Each species will have some varieties that are faster growers than other varieties in the same species.  In general though I believe that most species are either fast, moderate or slow growing.

Which conditions increase the growth rate?
There are a two conditions that will effect the growth rate of a succulent.

Growing Season A succulent will grow faster during its growing season than it will in its dormant season.  Some succulents do not grow at all in their dormant season and some will grow; but a lot slower. (see post: When do succulents have their growing and dormant seasons? )  So if you purchase/receive a succulent in its dormant season do not be worried if it sits there doing (almost) nothing.

Environment How fast a succulent grows will also depend on environmental conditions. Sunlight, temperature, soil and moisture can all affect the growth rate of a succulent. If the plant has its ideal amount of light, temperature and moisture and grown in the right soil medium it will grow at is optimum rate.

Which succulents are fast growing?
Firstly let me say what I consider to be fast growing. If I can see a succulent has increased in its overall size by about 25% within a 4-6 month period I would consider it to be fast growing.  I take a photo of a succulent the first day it arrives, including its name. If you are like me and check your succulents every day you would not notice their growth. Looking back at the original photo can show you how much they have grown in that period.

The following succulents are species that I grow in my garden and have witnessed their growth first hand.

Aeonium Aboreum
The Aeonium Aboreum below was planted in the middle of its growing season and had formed a thick mass after only 4 months. It would have been a totally different story if I had planted them in the summer when this species of succulent is dormant.  (see post: Indestructable…..Aeonium Aboreum ) Don’t forget succulents have a dormant season as well – so make sure you know when this is.

Aeonium Aboreum-July16

November 2016

November 2016

Echeveria
Most Echeveria are fast growing.  As long as you can see new leaves forming in the centre of the Echeveria then they are liking their environment and growing as fast as they can.  Most of my Echeveria varieties grow for about 9 months of the year due to our short winters.

sunburnt echeveria agavoides

December 2016

Echeveria Agavoides

April 2017 – 4 months later

Flowering Echeveria

June 2017

Echeveria Agavoides

Echeveria Elegans Succulent

June 2016

Echeveria Elegans

May 2017

June 2017

Echeveria Elegans

Graptoveria
Graptoveria are a very close relative to the Echeveria species as they are a hybrid of an Echeveria and Graptopetulum (see post: What is the difference between an Echeveria and Graptoveria succulent?)  Therefore they also are generally a fast growing species.

Graptoveria Fred Ives

September 2016

Graptoveria Fred Ives

May 2017

Graptoveria Fred Ives

Crassula
The Crassula species is also a fast growing plant.  Especially Crassula Ovata which is also a very hard variety.

Crassula Ovata Ribbon Plant Crassula Ovata grown in shade Crassula Ovata Jade Plant Succulent

Crassula Ovata

Research on the world wide web indicates that the following succulents are of the fast growing variety.

Coppertone sedum
Graptopetalum paraguayense
Haworthis obtusa
Kalanchoe fedtschenkoi – Lavender Sallops
Sedum rubrotinctum – Jelly Bean Plant
Sempervivum Guiseppe
Crassula perforata – String of Buttons
Agave desmettiana

Which succulents are slow growing?
There are a few slow growing succulents.

Euphorbia Millie – Crown of Thorns
Euphorbia Milli is quite a slow growing succulent.  The one below suddenly lost all its leaves and flowers so I moved it to a different position and it grew again – but very slowly.  It took 8 months just to grow its leaves back but still is not any taller.

Euphorbia

November 2016

Euphorbia Millie Succuelnt

July 2017

Giant Barrell Cactus
There are some succulents that literally grow so slowly you wonder if they are growing at all.  The Giant Cactus Barrell (below) is one of these.  However, they can live for approximately 100 years.

20 year old cacti

Lithops
Lithops are very slow growing but like the Giant Barrell Cactus they live a long time.

Lithops the living rocks Lithops are awesome #leafandclay #succulents cc: @ishiiplantnursery www.leafandclay.co

How long does it take to grow succulents from a leaf?
Once again depending on conditions a leaf can sprout roots within a week and start to sprout within a 3 week period.  To grow to a new plant – depending on the species and variety you can have a new succulent baby within a 3 -4 month period. This is a huge generalisation but has been my experience with a lot of leaf propagation I have tried.

How to Root a Succulent Leaf - Collect a succulent leaf cutting in the spring or summer when the plant is actively growing. Choose a healthy plant with no signs of damage or disease...

In summary, I would say, most of the popular and more common succulents that are available in Australia are moderate to fast growing.  Taking into consideration the general growing conditions of succulents;  the weather in most parts of Australia are ideal and even with their dormant season thrown into the mix you will still see a huge difference after one year of growth. Below is a photo of my front succulent garden bed with just a 9 month growing period.

Succulent Garden - Australia

October 2016

Australian Succulent Garden

July 2017

 

 

 

When do succulents have their growing and dormant seasons?

When do succulents have their growing and dormant seasons?

Most plants have a growing season which is generally spring and summer and are then dormant during winter. The dormant months give the plant time to rest and gather strength for the growing season.  

Why do I need to know when a succulents growing season is?
It is handy to know when a growing season is so that if your succulent is ‘not’ growing and looking a bit different then you know it is in its dormant season. (I am mainly referring to Aeoniums here! – see below) The growing season can give you an idea of when you should expect your succulent to produce new growth. If you like to fertilise your succulents, the beginning of the growing season is the time to do so. If you are transplanting it is best to do so at the right time of year.  Also, watering requirements may be different during the growing season compared to the dormant season.

However, saying that, some succulents actually seem to grow all year round!

What if my succulent grows during the expected dormant season?
Plants do not have an ‘internal clock’ but rather grow due to their environment. They determine when the appropriate time to grow or be dormant is. A vast majority of succulents are ‘opportunistic growers’, even if they are classified as “winter or summer growers” it really depends on the local climate and growing conditions. Opportunistic growers will grow any time of the year that the conditions are right. Mostly this depends on temperature. If the succulent has a summer growing season and temperatures stay elevated through autumn then the succulent will continue to grow.  It will only slow its growth when the temperatures start to drop.  Even when a succulent is in its dormant season it may still grow; just at a slower rate.

It is impossible to list when all succulents have their growing or dormant season.  A rule of thumb is to determine where their origins are.

Autumn-Winter Growing/Summer Dormant
Succulents from a Mediterranean climate ie The Canary Islands receive the majority or all of their water during the winter. Therefore most of these plants are dormant in the summer. Some autumn/winter growers are: most Aeoniums, a few Euphorbias, Haworthia and Kalanchoe.

Summer Growing/Winter Dormant
Succulents from the central American region, South Africa and Madagascar are summer growers and dormant in winter.  Such as Echeveria, Crassula, some Euphorbia. Graptoveria, Graptopetulam, Pachyveria and Sempervivum to name a few.

What are watering requirements during the dormant season?
Generally when a succulent is in its dormant season it is best to water sparingly.  However, if you are like me, and have your succulents growing in the ground make sure that they are planted in a rockery, on a slope or if on flat ground; grow them in a mound so that rain will drain away quickly.

Aeonium
The Aeonium species is one particular succulent that has its growing season in the winter and is dormant in the summer. When dormant the rosettes close up very tightly so it looks different in the summer compared to winter. (see below).  Most Aeonium also flower during the winter months as well.​

Dormant Aeonium Aboreum

dormant Aeonium rosette

Aeonium Aboreum

growing season – winter

Aeonium Aboreum Succulent Cacti

the rosette is large and open-winter

Agave
Agave’s have their main growing season during the summer months.  It is reported that they do require some moisture during the summer months, however, I do not water any of my Agave Attenuata during the summer, they survive on summer rainfall only. Agave do have a dormant season in the winter if you live in the colder parts of the world.  In Australia, however, they may still grow at a reduced rate depending on how cold the winter is.

Agave Attenuata Fire Wise Succulent

Echeveria
Most echeveria have their growing season during summer but for some varieties it is during spring. However, if winter and autumn months are fairly mild they will continue to grow slowly during their dormant period.

Echeveria pups Flowering Echeveria

This echeveria agavoides has been merrily growing (and flowering) through autumn to the beginning of winter.

Aloes
Some Aloes have their growing season in the winter and some are in the summer. It is on a species by species basis. Most, however, have their growing season in summer and flower in the winter.

An easy way to identify your succulent variety!

An easy way to identify your succulent variety!

So you have an addiction or just a mild love of succulents.  When you see a new succulent that you do not have; you purchase it straight away.  Disappointingly though it has no identification tag!  You know which species it is but not which variety. Sound familiar? So what is the quickest and easiest way to find out which variety of your beloved succulent you have?

There are of course some identification sites on the internet.  However, recently I found a quick and easy way to identify succulents that I had purchased.  Have you heard of Pinterest?

Pinterest is a social network that allows users to visually share images or videos by posting (known as ‘pinning’ on Pinterest) to their own or others’ boards.

Pinterest is a quick and easy way to identify your variety of succulent once you know its species.  All you need to do is type in the species in the ‘Search’ function.  ie : Echeveria, Crassula, Sedum, Graptoveria.

This will produce every photo on Pinterest that has Echeveria in the name.  Underneath each photo the variety name is displayed.  All you need to do is scroll through the photos until you see the Echeveria that looks like yours.  There is usually more than one photo of each particular variety as succulents can look different when they are grown in full sun/part shade have regular water/rainfall only etc etc.

Sub headings will appear under the search function which also may help with your search.You do not have to be a registered user to use Pinterest if you use the following link  http://pinterest.com/all . 

Some photos are links to websites where you can find out more about that particular photo.  Some photos are just that – photos of the succulent variety taken by a Pinterest user from their garden.  If you hover your mouse over a photo; white writing will appear at the bottom of the photo which will either give you a link to a website or say ‘photo uploaded by user’.

The photo quality is amazing.  The amount of photos that are available to view seem infinite.  One word of warning.  The accuracy of the names is not guaranteed.  However, if you scroll through the myriad of photos and you find numerous photos of the variety with the same name it should be safe to say that this name is correct. You can also check the origin of the photo to verify who is naming the variety.

Alternatively, if you have a favourite succulent and want to compare it to others of the same variety you can type in the variety ie  Graptoveria Fred Ives and there will be 100s of photos you can view of that variety.

Related posts: Where can I identify my Succulents?